National Progress Reports in Agrometeorology

The WMO Secretariat prepared and circulated a detailed questionnaire for the preparation of National Reports on Progress Made in Agricultural Meteorology by Members per Recommendation 1 of CAgM-XIV. In accordance with this recommendation, the WMO Secretariat will continue to compile the information in a comprehensive database to make it available to members.

2006-2009

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Canada

  1. Part 1 - Organization
    1. 1.1. Number of institutions engaged in Agrometeorology-related work in your country .....4
    2. 1.2. Resources and Facilities (please give number)
      1. 1.2a. Approximate no. of persons in Agricultural Meteorology
        1. NMHS
          1. - Total Number .....22
          2. - Class I-II .....N/A
          3. - Class III-IV .....N/A
          4. - Others .....11
          5. - PhD .....11
      2. 1.2b. Facilities available to Agricultural Meteorology Division
        1. NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....N/A
          2. - Personal computers .....0
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) .....1
          4. - Remote Sensing and Image Analysis .....0
    3. 1.3. Training and Education (Training and Education of Agricultural Meteorology personnel since 1999)
      1. NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....4
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....N/A
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....12
  2. Part 2 - Agrometeorological Observations
    1. NMHS
      1. Prior to 2006 (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
      2. Current (2009) (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
  3. Part 3 - Agrometeorological Services for Agriculture
    1. 3.1. Service structure (Indicate where agrometeorological services are located in your country)
      1. - Is the agrometeorological service constituted as a separate unit? .....Yes
      2. - Is the agrometeorological service at headquarters only? .....No
      3. - Are there agrometeorological services in different regions? .....Yes
    2. 3.2. Please list the agrometeorological products and other services for agriculture products provided by your service
      Near Real Time Maps of Agrometeoroligical Indices (actual and departures from normal of Precipitation, Temperature, Growing Degree Days, Regional yield forecasting.
    3. 3.3. Types and forms of service provided by the agrometeorology unit
      1. - Bulletins .....No
      2. - Brochures .....Yes
      3. - Radio and TV .....Yes
      4. - Press releases .....Yes
      5. - Workshops and seminars .....Yes
      6. - Interactions with farmers and/or farmer groups .....Yes
    4. 3.4. Agrometeorological Information on the Internet
      1. - Does your service have an Internet web page?
        http://www.agr.gc.ca/drought
      2. - Specify the agrometeorological products posted on your website
        Near Real Time Maps of Agrometeoroligical Indices (actual and departures from normal of Precipitation, Temperature, Growing Degree Days, Drought Management information, and links to other agroclimatological websites). A regional yield forecaster is in preparation.
    5. 3.5. Collaboration with other organizations (including important achievements)
      1. 3.5a. Please list the names of the governmental ministries/institutions that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Environment Canada

        Statistics Canada

        Natural Resources Canada

        Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing

        Flight Research Laboratory

        Canada Space Agency

        University of British Columbia, University of Regina, University of Guelph, McGill University, University of Saskatchewan, Carleton University

        Several provincial government agencies
      2. 3.5b. Please list the names of the non-governmental organization (NGOs) that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        The Canadian Federation of Agriculture,

        The Soil Conservation Council of Canada,

        The Canadian Cattlemen’s association,

        The Saskatchewan Association of Watersheds

        Dairy Farmers of Canada

        Canadian Pork Council
    6. 3.6. Media interaction: routinely/in person
      1. - Television .....Yes
      2. - Radio .....Yes
      3. - Electronic .....Yes
      4. - Newspaper/magazine .....Yes
    7. 3.7. Awareness and training events conducted with
      1. - Cooperatively with other Ministry or Sector .....Yes
      2. - Cooperatively with other University .....Yes
      3. - Cooperatively with NGO .....Yes
      4. - At regular intervals? .....Yes
      5. - Do meteorologists/climatologists attend with sector reps.? .....Yes
  4. Part 4 - Agrometeorological Research
    1. Please indicate the agrometeorological research conducted in your service
      1. 4.1. Influence of meteorological factors on the growth, development, yield and quality of agricultural crops .....Yes
      2. 4.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and assessment of present condition .....No
      3. 4.3. Linkage between agrometeorological models and atmospheric forecast and general circulation models .....No
      4. 4.4. Development of applications using seasonal to interannual predictions in agriculture .....Yes
      5. 4.5. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research .....Yes
      6. 4.6. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock husbandry .....No
      7. 4.7. Influence of meteorological and climatological factors on inland coastal and marine fisheries .....No
      8. 4.8. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather .....No
      9. 4.9. Agrometeorological conditions for the development of crop and livestock pests and diseases .....No
      10. 4.10. Research on the impact of agricultural activities that possibly influence weather and climate at local, national, and global levels .....Yes
      11. 4.11. Research on remote-sensing application in agrometeorology .....Yes
      12. 4.12. Research into agrometeorological aspects of drought and desertification .....Yes
      13. 4.13. Research on potential impacts of climate change/variability on national agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      14. 4.14. Research on mitigation and adaptation strategies due to impacts of climate change/variability and natural disasters in agriculture .....Yes
      15. 4.15. Research on the impact of natural disasters on agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....No
      16. 4.16. Research on fire weather agrometeorology .....No
  5. Part 5 - Socio-Economic Benefits
    1. - Please list any case studies demonstrating the socio-economic benefits of your agrometeorological service.
      S. Sinkala. Analysis of how the information from the AESB-NAIS DroughtWatch web service is utilised by the agriculture industry. Draft completed May 2010.
  6. Part 6 - Models
    1. - Information on practical crop-yield models, irrigation, disease/pest model, etc. (even if they are in the initial stages of development). Please list the ten most-used models in your service.
      Ag Canada water budget model for soil moisture

      APSIM – Agricultural Production Systems Simulator

      DSSAT – Decisión Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer

      DNDC – Denitrification and Decomposition model (greenhouse gas emissions model)

      DayCent – Greenhouse gas and soil carbon model
  7. Part 7 - Drought Indicies
    1. - Please list the five most-used drought indices in your service.
      Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)

      Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

      Precipitation percent of Normal

      Precipitation as a percentile of historic distribution
  8. Part 8 - Societies
    1. - Please list any agricultural meteorology societies active in your country.
      CMOS – Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (online at: http://www.cmos.ca/)

      CSAFM – Canadian Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (online at: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~csafm/English/)
  9. Part 9 - Bibliography
    1. - Please provide a short bibliography of relevant papers/reports published by your service.

      Grainger C, Clarke T, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM and Eckard RJ. 2008. Supplementation with whole cottonseed reduces methane emissions and can profitably increase milk production of dairy cows offered a forage and cereal grain diet. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 48:73-76. DOI: 10.1071/EA07224.

      Zvomuya F, Larney FJ, McGinn SM, Olson AF and Willms WD. 2008. Surface albedo and soil heat flux changes following drilling mud application to a semiarid, mixed-grass prairie. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72:1217-1225. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2007.0430.

      McGinn SM, Chen D, Loh Z, Hill J, Beauchemin KA and Denmead OT. 2008. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle in Australia and Canada. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 48:183-185.

      Loh Z, Chen D, Bai M, Naylor T, Griffith D, Hill J, Denmead T, McGinn S and Edis R. 2008. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from Australian feedlot beef production using open-path spectroscopy and atmospheric dispersion modelling. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 48: 244-247.

      McGinn SM, Coates TW, Flesch TK and Crenna B. 2008. Ammonia emission from dairy cow manure stored in a lagoon over summer. Can. J. Soil Sci. 88:611-615.

      Rochette P and McGinn SM. 2008. N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils in Canada. (Preface), Can. J. Soil Sci. 88:131-132.

      Beauchemin KA and McGinn SM. 2008. Reducing methane in dairy and beef cattle operations: What is feasible? Prairie Soils and Crops. 1:16-20. [on-line journal found at www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]

      Holtshausen L, Chaves AV, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, McAllister TA, Cheeke PR and Benchaar C. 2009. Feeding saponin from Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2808-2821. DOI:10.3168/jds.2008-1843.

      Grainger C, Clarke T, Auldist MJ, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Waghorn GC and Eckard RJ. 2009. Potential use of Acacia mearnsii condensed tannins to reduce methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from grazing dairy cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 87:241-251. DOI: 10.4141/CJAS08110.

      Staebler RM, McGinn SM, Flesch T, Crenna B, Hayden KL and Li S-M. 2009. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot. Atm. Environ. 43(38):6091-6099. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.08.045.

      Ellis JL, Kebreab E, Odongo NE, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Nkrumah D, Christopherson R, McBride BW, Okine EK and France J. 2009. Modeling methane production from beef cattle using linear and non-linear approaches. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1334-1345. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2007-0725.

      Cárcamo HA, Herle CE, Otani J and McGinn SM. 2009. Cold hardiness and overwintering survivorship of the cabbage seedpod weevil (Ceuthorrhynchus obstrictus Marsham). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 133(3):223-231. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2009.00924.x

      Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Benchaar C, and Holtshausen L. 2009. Crushed Sunflower, Flax, or Canola Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets: Effects on Methane Production, Rumen Fermentation, and Milk Production. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2118-2127. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1903.

      McGinn SM, Chung Y-H, Beauchemin KA, Iwaasa A D and Grainger C. 2009. Use of corn distiller’s grain to reduce enteric methane loss from beef cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci 89:409-413.

      McGinn SM, Beauchemin KA and Flesch TK. 2009. Performance of a dispersion model to estimate methane loss from cattle in pens. J. Environ. Qual. 38:1795-1802.

      McGinn SM, Flesch TK, Chen D, Cressa B, Denmead OT, Naylor T and Rowell D. 2010. Coarse Particulate Matter Emissions from Cattle Feedlots in Australia. J. Environ. Qual. 39:791-798.

      Beauchemin KA, Janzen HH, Little SM, McAllister TA, McGinn SM. 2010. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production in western Canada: A case study. Agric. Syst. (in press).

      Dyer, J.A. and Desjardins, R.L. 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions associated with the manufacturing of tractors and farm machinery in Canada. Biosystems Engineering. 93: 107-118.

      Janzen, H.H., Angers, D.A., Boehm, M., Bolinder, M., Desjardins, R.L., Dyer, J.A., Ellert, B.H., Gibb, D.J., Gregorich, E.G., Helgason, B.L., Lemke, R., Massé, D., McGinn, S.M., McAllister, T.A., Newlands, N., Pattey, E., Rochette, P., Smith, W., VandenBygaart, A.J., and Wang, H. 2006. A proposed approach to estimate and reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from whole farms. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 86: 401-418.

      Pattey, E., Edwards, G., Strachan, I.B., Desjardins, R.L, Kaharabata, S. and Wagner Riddle C., 2006. Towards standards for measuring greenhouse gas flux from agricultural fields using instrumented towers. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86: 373-400.

      Pattey, E. Strachan, I.B., Desjardins, R.L., Edwards, G.C., Dow, D., and MacPherson, I.J. 2006. Application of a tunable diode laser to the measurement of CH4 and N2O fluxes from field to landscape scale using several micrometeorological techniques. Special Issue “Tribute to Marv Wesely” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 136: 222-236.

      Pattey E., Edwards, G.C., Desjardins, R.L., Pennock, D., Smith W., Grant B., MacPherson, J.I., 2007. Tools for quantifying N2O emissions from Agroecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.142(2-4): 103-119.

      Betts, A.K., Desjardins, R.L., Worth, D. 2007. Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy budget in BOREAS. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 156-169.

      Gameda, S., Qian, B., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., 2007. Climatic trends in summer fallow and climate in the Canadian Prairies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 170–185.

      Vergé, X.P.C., De Kimpe, C., and Desjardins, R.L. 2007. Agricultural production, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 255-269.

      Hutchinson, J.J., Campbell, C.A. and Desjardins, R.L. 2007. Some perspectives on carbon sequestration in agriculture. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 288-302.

      Desjardins, R.L., Sivakumar, M.V.K. and C. de Kimpe. 2007. The contribution of agriculture to the state of climate: Workshop summary and recommendations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 314-324.

      Vergé, X., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L. and Worth, D. 2007. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Canadian Dairy Industry during 2001. Agricultural Systems. 94: 683-693.

      Dyer, J.A. and Desjardins, R.L. 2007. Energy based GHG emissions from Canadian agriculture. Journal of the Energy Institute. 80: 93-95.

      Hutchinson, J.J., Grant, B.B., Smith, W.N., Desjardins R.L., Campbell, C.A., Worth, D., Vergé, X. 2007. Estimates of direct nitrous oxide emissions from Canadian agroecosystems and their uncertainties. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 87: 141-152.

      Desjardins, R.L., McBain, M.C., Kaharabata, S., Pattey, E., Worth, D., Vergé, X. and Gao, Z. 2007. Measuring methane emissions from agricultural sources. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences. 2: 31-39.

      Mauder, M., R.L. Desjardins and I. MacPherson. 2007. Scale analysis of airborne flux measurements over heterogenous terrain in a boreal ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research. 112: D13112.

      Mauder, M., R.L. Desjardins, S.P. Oncley and I. MacPherson. 2007. Atmospheric response to a partial solar eclipse over a cotton field in Central California. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 46: 1792-1803.

      Rochette, P., D. Worth, E. Huffman, J.A. Brierley, B.G. McConkey, J.Y. Yang, J.J. Hutchinson R.L. Desjardins, Lemke, R. and S. Gameda. 2007. Estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Canada. II – 1990-2005 inventory. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 88: 655-669.

      Rochette, P., D. Worth, R.L. Lemke, B.G. McConkey, D.J. Pennock, C. Wagner-Riddle, and R.L. Desjardins. 2007. Estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Canada. I – Development of a country specific methodology. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 88: 641-654.

      Dyer, J.A., Vergé, X.P.C., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2008. Long term trends in the GHG emissions from the Canadian dairy industry. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88: 629-639.

      Mauder, M., Desjardins, R.L., Gao, Z., and Van Haarlem, R. 2008. Errors of naturally ventilated air temperature measurements in a spatial observation network. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 25: 2145-2151.

      Vergé, X.P.C., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian beef industry. Agricultural Systems. 98: 126-134.

      Vergé, X.P.C., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2009. Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian pork industry. Livestock Science. 121: 92-101.

      Van Haarlem, R.P., Desjardins, R.L., Gao, Z., Flesch, T.K. and Li, X. 2008. Methane and ammonia emissions from a beef feedlot in western Canada for a twelve-day period in the fall. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 88: 641-649.

      Vergé, X.P.C., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2009. Long-term trends in greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian poultry industry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 18: 210-222.

      Gao, Z., Desjardins, R.L., and Flesch, T.K. 2009. Comparison of a simplified micrometeorological mass difference technique and an inverse dispersion technique for estimating methane emissions from a small area source. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 149: 891-898.
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