National Progress Reports in Agrometeorology

The WMO Secretariat prepared and circulated a detailed questionnaire for the preparation of National Reports on Progress Made in Agricultural Meteorology by Members per Recommendation 1 of CAgM-XIV. In accordance with this recommendation, the WMO Secretariat will continue to compile the information in a comprehensive database to make it available to members.

2002-2005

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Egypt

  1. Part 1 - Organization
    1. 1.1. Number of institutions engaged in Agrometeorology-related work in your country .....10
    2. 1.2. Resources and Facilities (please give number)
      1. 1.2a. Approximate no. of persons in Agricultural Meteorology
        1. NMHS
          1. - Class I-II .....2
          2. - Class III-IV .....32
          3. - Others .....23
          4. - PhD .....2
        2. non-NMHS
          1. - Class I-II .....N/A
          2. - Class III-IV .....N/A
          3. - Others .....N/A
          4. - PhD .....N/A
      2. 1.2b. Facilities available to Agricultural Meteorology Division
        1. NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....4
          2. - Personal computers .....0
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) .....0
          4. - Remote Sensing and Image Analysis .....0
          5. - Vehicles .....0
        2. non-NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....N/A
          2. - Personal computers .....N/A
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GPS) .....N/A
          4. - Remote Sending and Image Analysis .....N/A
          5. - Vehicles .....N/A
    3. 1.3. Training and Education (Training and Education of Agricultural Meteorology personnel since 1999)
      1. NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....2
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....2
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....17
      2. non-NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....N/A
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....N/A
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....N/A
  2. Part 2 - Agrometeorological Observations
    1. NMHS
      1. 2002 and prior
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....9
        2. - New instruments added .....2
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....0
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....1
      2. 2005
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....9
        2. - New instruments added .....0
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....0
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....2
    2. non-NMHS
      1. 2002 and prior
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
      2. 2005
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
  3. Part 3 - Agrometeorological Services for Agriculture
    1. 3.1. Service structure (Indicate where agrometeorological services are located in your country)
      1. - Is the agrometeorological service constituted as a separate unit? .....No
      2. - Is the agrometeorological service at headquarters only? .....Yes
      3. - Are there agrometeorological services in different regions? .....Yes
    2. 3.2. Please list the agrometeorological products and other services for agriculture products provided by your service
      Observed Data such as: Wind speed at 2 meter -- wind speed and direction at 10 meter- evaporation from class A-pan – relative humidity –temperature – maximum and minimum temperatures- minimum temperature at 2 cm of grass field - soil temperature in dry and grass fields at depths 2-5-10-20 –50-100-150-300 cm and sun shin duration at 8 stations.

      Issuing regularly ( Ten-days Agrometeorological Weather Report ) to help research workers in different branches of agricultural field ,and introduce the meteorological information as fast as possible to plant protection workers.

      Training courses of agrometeorological for class III and class I to research workers in different branches of agriculture

      Yearly workshop in the field of application of meteorology, hydrology and agriculture meteorology.

      Helping the research workers in the field of agrometeorological and calibrate their instruments

      Issuing regularly (long rang forecast of Nile flood) to help decision makers to draw water policy

      Issuing regularly monthly report of evaporation from Naser lake
    3. 3.3. Types and forms of service provided by the agrometeorology unit
      1. - Brochures and info pamphlets .....No
      2. - Radio and TV .....No
      3. - Press releases .....N/A
      4. - Workshops and seminars .....Yes
      5. - Interactions with farmers and/or farmer groups .....No
    4. 3.4. Agrometeorological Information on the Internet
      1. - Does your service have an Internet web page?
        No
      2. - Specify the agrometeorological products posted on your website
        N/A
    5. 3.5. Collaboration with other organizations (including important achievements)
      1. 3.5a. Please list the names of the governmental ministries/institutions that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Central Laboratory of Agricultural Climatology – Ministry of Agriculture –Dokki, Giza

        Soil and Water Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza

        Soil and Water Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Mallawy

        Faculty of Agriculture , Asuit , Ain Shams, Alexandria and Cairo Universities

        Studies and researches African Institute, Giza, Cairo

        General Directorate of Locust and Agricultural aviation , – Ministry of Agriculture –Dokki, Giza

        Authority of development of lake of high dam
      2. 3.5b. Please list the names of the non-governmental organization (NGOs) that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        N/A
    6. 3.6. Media interaction: routinely/in person
      1. - Television .....No
      2. - Radio .....No
      3. - Electronic .....No
      4. - Newspaper/magazine .....No
    7. 3.7. Awareness and training events which you conduct
      1. - Cooperatively with other Ministry or Sector .....Yes
      2. - Cooperatively with other University .....Yes
      3. - Cooperatively with NGO .....No
      4. - At regular intervals .....Yes
      5. - Do meteorologists/climatologists attend together with sector reps? .....Yes
  4. Part 4 - Agrometeorological Research
    1. Please indicate the agrometeorological research conducted in your service
      1. 4.1. Influence of meteorological factors on the growth, development, yield and quality of agricultural crops .....Yes
      2. 4.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and assessment of present condition .....Yes
      3. 4.3. Linkage between agrometeorological models and atmospheric forecast and general circulation models .....Yes
      4. 4.4. Development of applications using seasonal to interannual predictions in agriculture .....Yes
      5. 4.5. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research .....Yes
      6. 4.6. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock husbandry .....No
      7. 4.7. Influence of meteorological and climatological factors on inland coastal and marine fisheries .....No
      8. 4.8. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather .....No
      9. 4.9. Agrometeorological conditions for the development of crop and livestock pests and diseases .....No
      10. 4.10. Research on the impact of agricultural activities that possibly influence weather and climate at local, national, and global levels .....No
      11. 4.11. Research on remote-sensing application in agrometeorology .....No
      12. 4.12. Research into agrometeorological aspects of drought and desertification .....Yes
      13. 4.13. Research on potential impacts of climate change/variability on national agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....No
      14. 4.14. Research on mitigation and adaptation strategies due to impacts of climate change/variability and natural disasters in agriculture .....No
      15. 4.15. Research on the impact of natural disasters on agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....No
      16. 4.16. Research on fire weather agrometeorology .....No
    2. Please cite below up to 7 reports/publications in the item checked above from your service.
      Dawod ,M.A.A,1996: Climatological rules in assessing Wheat crop production potential in Egypt, the second international conference of the African Meteorological Society(SMA)on meteorological and sustainable development in Africa, 25-28 November 1996 ,Casablanca-Morocco.

      Dawod ,M.A.A,1996: Climatological rules in assessing crop production potential in Egypt , M.Sc, Thesis, ,Faculty of science ,Cairo University ,1996

      E.S. Attia , (1996), Studies on the Effect of Some Meteorological Factors on the Occurrence of Fungal Diseases - M. Sc., Cairo University – Faculty of science, Pp 65

      Dawod ,M.A.A & A.A. Trabea,1999: Soil Heat Transmission at Giza Agrometerology Station , Sixth International Conference on the Development of Dry Lands , 22-27 August,1999, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA),Cairo, Egypt , 638-641 pp.

      Dawod ,M.A.A & M.A.El-Rafy ,1999: Towards Long Range Forecast of the Nile Flood, the seventh Nile 2002 conference comprehensive water resources development of the Nile basin : the vision for the next century , March 15-19, 1999, Cairo, Egypt.317-320pp

      E.S. Attia & A. H. Farage, (2000) Suitability of Egyptian Climate for Maize plantation- The 25 th International Conference for Statistics, Computer Science and its applications, the Egyptian statistics society ,May 6-11 ,2000,101-116 pp

      Dawod ,M.A.A,2002:Long rang forecast of seasonal rainfall of the north coast of Egypt, The 27 th International Conference for Statistics, Computer Science and its applications, the Egyptian statistics society ,April 13-18 ,2002,123-139 pp

      E.S. Attia, (2003) Crop Index Anticipation Using Rainfall analysis over Matruh Location. The 28 th International Conference For Statistical Computer Science And Its Applications, 12-17 April 2003, Ministry of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Center, Pp 43-59

      Dawod, M.A.A,2003: Climatic variabilities over Egypt North Coastal area and East Africa area in relation to Sea Surface Temperature pattern, Ph.D.,Thesis, Faculty of science, Cairo University, 2003.

      E.S. Attia, (2005): Forecasting of Powdery Mildew Disease on Some Fruit Crops in Egypt Using Meteorological Elements. -Ph.D degree, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Meteorology Department Al-Azhar University, Pps 207
  5. Part 5 - Socio-Economic Benefits
    1. - Please list any case studies demonstrating the socio-economic benefits of your agrometeorological service.
      Case 1-Forecast the seasons of Nile flood from seasons 2002/2003 to 2005/2006.

      By applying the studies in the reference(Dawod ,M.A.A & M.A.El-Rafy,2002) and used update on the data of sea surface temperature SST for the months January to June for the season of Nile flood, Also by using The characteristics of the Tropical Easterly jet and Sub-Tropical Jet stream during June month could be used to forecast season of rainfall over Africa notably over eastern part :
      Where the season of Nile flood (natural flow of water at Aswan by unit Milliard Cubic Meters (MCM) is start at August month to July month the next year , the time which issuing the forecast is July before the start the season of flood by one month for helping decision makers to draw water politically

      1- First issued the forecast the season 2002/2003 for Nile flood at 12/7/ 2002
      The forecast of the Nile flood at season 2002/2003 is below it normal and the range of the natural flow of the water at Aswan between 73 to 55 (MCM)
      The evaluation of the forecast at 1/8/2003 .The actual value of the season 2002/2003 was below it normal and record of the natural flow of the water at Aswan was value 71 (MCM, it was in the range of the forecast. (Excellent forecast)

      2- Second issued the forecast the season 2003/2004 for Nile flood at 17/7/ 2003
      The forecast of the Nile flood at season 2002/2003 is below it normal and the range of the natural flow of the water at Aswan between 76 to 59 (MCM).
      The evaluation of the forecast at 1/8/2004 .The actual value of the season 2003/2004 was below it normal (84 MCM) and record of the natural flow of the water at Aswan was value 81 MCM , it was not the range of the forecast. (Good forecast)

      3-Third issued the forecast the season 2004/2005 for Nile flood at 16/7/ 2004
      The forecast of the Nile flood at season 2004/2005 is below it normal and the range of the natural flow of the water at Aswan between 76.59 to 59 MCM.
      The evaluation of the forecast at 1/8/2005 .The actual value of the season 2004/2005 was below it normal (84 MCM) and record of the natural flow of the water at Aswan was value 72 MCM, it was in the range of the forecast. ((Excellent forecast))

      4-Fourth issued the forecast the season 2005/2006 for Nile flood at 17/7/ 2005
      The forecast of the Nile flood at season 2005/2006 is below it normal and the range of the natural flow of the water at Aswan between 75 to 55 MCM.
      The evaluation of the forecast at 1/8/2006 .not yet

      Case 2 - Study of Desert Locusts

      Study of the affect of weather on the flight path of Desert Locusts over Egypt at 15-22 November 2004 by Mohamed Abed-elrhman Aly DAWOD (Egyptian Meteorological Authority).

      Abstract
      Desert Locust lives a total of about three to five months although this is extremely variable and depends mostly on weather and ecological conditions. Several immature and mature swarms crossed the West Coast of Egypt from East Coast of Libya through the period 15-22- November 2004. The aim of this study is to show the effect of weather conditions on the track of flight path of Desert Locusts over Egypt during this period. This work was performed by using synoptic charts, hourly data observation (temperature, wind speed, wind direction and pressure) of six stations over Egypt and also some charts of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model during the same period. Results showed that the weather condition of the flight path are: temperature 22-24 0C, no rain, and wind speed is low to moderate (2-10) knots. Also from this study we could defined three tracks of paths of the Desert Locust which attacked Egypt during 15-22 /11/2004.These tracks are: -

      - Track (a): Tubruk , Salloum , Alexandria,Cairo, southern Sinai at Sharm Esh Sheikh and the Red Sea coast during the period 15-17 November 2004

      -Track (b) : coast of Libyan to the Mediterranean coast, Israel and Jordan during the period 16-17 November 2004

      -Track (k):Tubruk to Farafra and Abu Minkar over the Western Desert of Egypt during the period 18-22 November 2004
      The attained results revealed that the charts of wind direction at 500-meter height from (NWP) could be used successfully to forecast the flight path of the Desert Locust.

      Case 3 - Project of Cotton pests (2001-2002)

      This case study performed by the Agriculture Research Center, the Plant Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University and Egyptian Meteorological Authority. In this case Study, El-Qalubia, El-Sharkia, El-Dakahila and El-Meina governorate are chosen to represent a different locations of Egypt. Cotton crop is chosen to perform this study. The pests of spodoptera littoralis(Boisd), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) and Earias insulana (Boisd) are chosen for these epidemic effect on the cotton yield. Agriculture workers observe the number of moths in the cotton field using water pan-trap every week. Agro meteorological workers observe the situation of a combined meteorological factors and analyze the relation between number of moths and growing degree days. Plant protection workers observe the enemy of the cotton pests, and its relation with less or more of the moths. In the of this project, some tables are performed to forecast the starting date, ending date and maximum existence date of the generations of these pests to warn the decision makers to make a protective spring to minimize the damage and maximize the yield and keep clean environment.
  6. Part 6 - Models
    1. - Information on practical crop-yield models, irrigation, disease/pest model, etc. (even if they are in the initial stages of development). Please list the ten most-used models in your service.
      Disease/pest model

      Some statistical concluded models resulting from relation between powdery mildew disease and meteorological factors, reference

      E. S. Attia, (2005): Forecasting of Powdery Mildew Disease on Some Fruit Crops in Egypt Using Meteorological Elements. -Ph.D degree, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Meteorology Department Al-Azhar University, Pps 207
  7. Part 7 - Bibliography
    1. Please provide a short bibliography of relevant papers/reports published by your service.
      Dawod ,M.A.A ,2003: Effect of climate change on wheat crop over Egypt, Egyptian Meteorological Authority-Meteorological Research Bulletin –ISSN 1987-1014, Volume 18 , January 2004,Cairo ,Egypt, 22-37 pp.

      Dawod ,M.A.A ,2004 :Verification the long rang forecast of Nile flood of season 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, Nine workshop on meteorology and sustainable development, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, 28-29 April 2004, Arabic languages Meteorological Research Bulletin –ISSN 1987-1014, Volume 19, January 2005,Cairo ,Egypt, 156-170 pp

      Dawod ,M.A.A ,2005: study of the affecting weather on the flight path of “Desert Locusts “ over Egypt at 15-22 November 2004,ten workshop on meteorology and sustainable development, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, 24-25 March 2005, Meteorological Research Bulletin –ISSN 1987-1014, Volume 20, December 2005,Cairo ,Egypt, 66-76 pp

      Dawod ,M.A.A & M.A.El-Rafy,2002: River Nile floods and droughts in relation to Jet Streams and SSTs, Egyptian Meteorological Authority-Meteorological Research Bulletin –ISSN 1987-1014, Volume 17 , January 2003,Cairo ,Egypt, 32-51 pp.

      E.S. Attia, (2002) Long range forecast of mango powdery mildew disease in Egypt using meterological factors. -Meteorology Research Bulletin, Volume 16, Egyptian Meteorological Specialists Association, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, January 2002, Pp, 123-141

      E.S. Attia, (2002) Water and heat requirements for some economic crops under Egyptian climatic conditions.-Meteorology Research Bulletin, Volume 16, Egyptian Meteorological Specialists Association, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, January 2002, Pp, 180-193

      E.S. Attia, (2003) Long range forecast of apple powdery mildew disease in Egypt using meteorological factors. -Meteorology Research Bulletin, Volume 17, Egyptian Meteorological Specialists Association, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, January 2003, Pp, 52-63

      E.S. Attia, (2004) Agrometeorological concepts of wheat crop in Delta of Egypt.-Meteorology Research Bulletin, Volume 18, Egyptian Meteorological Specialists Association, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, January 2004, Pp, 69-82.

      E.S. Attia, (2005) Long range forecast of spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) using growing degree days - Meteorology Research Bulletin, Volume 19, Egyptian Meteorological Specialists Association, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt, January 2005, Pp, 171-188
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