National Progress Reports in Agrometeorology

The WMO Secretariat prepared and circulated a detailed questionnaire for the preparation of National Reports on Progress Made in Agricultural Meteorology by Members per Recommendation 1 of CAgM-XIV. In accordance with this recommendation, the WMO Secretariat will continue to compile the information in a comprehensive database to make it available to members.

2002-2005

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Canada

  1. Part 1 - Organization
    1. 1.1. Number of institutions engaged in Agrometeorology-related work in your country .....3
    2. 1.2. Resources and Facilities (please give number)
      1. 1.2a. Approximate no. of persons in Agricultural Meteorology
        1. NMHS
          1. - Class I-II .....50
          2. - Class III-IV .....50
          3. - Others .....50
          4. - PhD .....50
        2. non-NMHS
          1. - Class I-II .....N/A
          2. - Class III-IV .....N/A
          3. - Others .....N/A
          4. - PhD .....N/A
      2. 1.2b. Facilities available to Agricultural Meteorology Division
        1. NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....0
          2. - Personal computers .....0
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) .....0
          4. - Remote Sensing and Image Analysis .....0
          5. - Vehicles .....0
        2. non-NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....N/A
          2. - Personal computers .....N/A
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GPS) .....N/A
          4. - Remote Sending and Image Analysis .....N/A
          5. - Vehicles .....N/A
    3. 1.3. Training and Education (Training and Education of Agricultural Meteorology personnel since 1999)
      1. NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....4
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....3
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....3
      2. non-NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....N/A
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....N/A
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....N/A
  2. Part 2 - Agrometeorological Observations
    1. NMHS
      1. 2002 and prior
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
      2. 2005
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....299
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
    2. non-NMHS
      1. 2002 and prior
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
      2. 2005
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....N/A
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - New types and methods of agromet observations .....N/A
        4. - Automatic weather stations in use .....N/A
  3. Part 3 - Agrometeorological Services for Agriculture
    1. 3.1. Service structure (Indicate where agrometeorological services are located in your country)
      1. - Is the agrometeorological service constituted as a separate unit? .....No
      2. - Is the agrometeorological service at headquarters only? .....No
      3. - Are there agrometeorological services in different regions? .....Yes
    2. 3.2. Please list the agrometeorological products and other services for agriculture products provided by your service
      Farm-scale greenhouse gas calculator (available for download at: http://ncgavs.usask.ca/ghg_calculator/GHGFarm1.1/English-Anglais/)

      Near real time reporting of moisture conditions and methods to mitigate drought risk (available at: http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/drought/index_e.htm)
    3. 3.3. Types and forms of service provided by the agrometeorology unit
      1. - Brochures and info pamphlets .....Yes
      2. - Radio and TV .....Yes
      3. - Press releases .....Yes
      4. - Workshops and seminars .....Yes
      5. - Interactions with farmers and/or farmer groups .....Yes
    4. 3.4. Agrometeorological Information on the Internet
      1. - Does your service have an Internet web page?
        http://res2.agr.gc.ca/ecorc/index_e.htm
      2. - Specify the agrometeorological products posted on your website
        Technical bulletins on heat units and crop production and on impacts of climate change on agroclimatic indices in regions of Canada

        GHG calculator: a downloadable program that will estimate GHG emissions from whole Farms

        NOTE: A lot of research work is also available on websites. For example, Climate severity index projections: http://www.cics.uvic.ca/severity/ and

        The Canadian Climate Impacts Scenarios: http://www.cics.uvic.ca/scenarios/index.cgi?Introduction
    5. 3.5. Collaboration with other organizations (including important achievements)
      1. 3.5a. Please list the names of the governmental ministries/institutions that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Environment Canada, Meteorological Service of Canada

        Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), Canadian Forestry Service (CFS), Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault Ste. Marie ON Canada

        Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

        Acheivments include numerous articles published in peer-reviewed journals, new biological components added to CCCMA climate models, lead authors for IPCC Fourth Assessment etc…

      2. 3.5b. Please list the names of the non-governmental organization (NGOs) that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Soil Conservation Council of Canada

        Dairy Farmers of Canada

        Canadian Cattlemen’s Association

        Canadian Pork Council

        Numerous universities and academic networks

        Canadian Institute for Climate Studies
    6. 3.6. Media interaction: routinely/in person
      1. - Television .....Yes
      2. - Radio .....Yes
      3. - Electronic .....Yes
      4. - Newspaper/magazine .....Yes
    7. 3.7. Awareness and training events which you conduct
      1. - Cooperatively with other Ministry or Sector .....Yes
      2. - Cooperatively with other University .....Yes
      3. - Cooperatively with NGO .....Yes
      4. - At regular intervals .....Yes
      5. - Do meteorologists/climatologists attend together with sector reps? .....Yes
  4. Part 4 - Agrometeorological Research
    1. Please indicate the agrometeorological research conducted in your service
      1. 4.1. Influence of meteorological factors on the growth, development, yield and quality of agricultural crops .....Yes
      2. 4.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and assessment of present condition .....Yes
      3. 4.3. Linkage between agrometeorological models and atmospheric forecast and general circulation models .....Yes
      4. 4.4. Development of applications using seasonal to interannual predictions in agriculture .....No
      5. 4.5. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research .....Yes
      6. 4.6. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock husbandry .....N/A
      7. 4.7. Influence of meteorological and climatological factors on inland coastal and marine fisheries .....Yes
      8. 4.8. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather .....No
      9. 4.9. Agrometeorological conditions for the development of crop and livestock pests and diseases .....No
      10. 4.10. Research on the impact of agricultural activities that possibly influence weather and climate at local, national, and global levels .....Yes
      11. 4.11. Research on remote-sensing application in agrometeorology .....Yes
      12. 4.12. Research into agrometeorological aspects of drought and desertification .....Yes
      13. 4.13. Research on potential impacts of climate change/variability on national agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      14. 4.14. Research on mitigation and adaptation strategies due to impacts of climate change/variability and natural disasters in agriculture .....Yes
      15. 4.15. Research on the impact of natural disasters on agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      16. 4.16. Research on fire weather agrometeorology .....Yes
    2. Please cite below up to 7 reports/publications in the item checked above from your service.
      Bélanger, G., Rochette, P., Castonguay, Y., Bootsma, A., Mongrain, D. and Ryan, D.A.J. 2002. “Climate change and winter survival of perennial forage crops in Eastern Canada.” Agron. J. 94: 1120 – 1130

      Bootsma, A., Anderson, D. and Gameda, S. 2004. “Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Agroclimatic Indices in Southern Regions of Ontario and Quebec.” Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Technical Bulletin, ECORC Contribution No. 03-284. Retrieved July 21, 2006 (http://res2.agr.ca/ecorc/tb03284/index_e.htm)

      Bootsma, A., Gameda, S. and McKenney, D.W. 2005. “Potential impacts of climate change on corn, soybeans and barley yields in Atlantic Canada.” Can. J. Soil Sci. 85: 345-357.

      Bootsma, A., Gameda, S. and McKenney, D.W. 2005. “Impacts of potential climate change on selected agroclimatic indices in Atlantic Canada.” Can. J. Soil Sci. 85: 329-343.

      Brown, D.M. and Bootsma, A. 2002. “Moisture in maize kernels at physiological maturity.” Can. J. Plant Sci. 82: 549-550.

      Rochette, P., Bélanger, G., Castonguay, Y., Bootsma, A. and Mongrain, D. 2004. “Climate change and winter damage to fruit trees in eastern Canada.” Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 1113–1125.

      Qian B, Gameda S, Hayhoe H, De Jong R, Bootsma A. 2004. “Comparison of LARS-WG and AAFC-WG stochastic weather generators for diverse Canadian climates.” Climate Research 26: 175-191.
  5. Part 5 - Socio-Economic Benefits
    1. - Please list any case studies demonstrating the socio-economic benefits of your agrometeorological service.
      None
  6. Part 6 - Models
    1. - Information on practical crop-yield models, irrigation, disease/pest model, etc. (even if they are in the initial stages of development). Please list the ten most-used models in your service.
      Versatile Soil Moisture Budget (Bair-Robertson)

      Potencial evapotranspiration estimates using Bair-Robertson, Penman, Thornwaite and Priestly Taylor Methods

      Various models to estimate greenhouse gas emissions, including the Century Model, DNDC, DayCent, ECOSYS and Expert N

  7. Part 7 - Bibliography
    1. Please provide a short bibliography of relevant papers/reports published by your service.
      Batten, S.D. and W.R. Crawford. 2005. “The influence of coastal origin eddies on oceanic plankton distributions in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Topical Studies in Oceanography: Haida Eddies: mesoscale transport in the Northeast Pacific.” Deep-Sea Research II. 52(7-8). doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.02.001. 991-1010.

      Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, and D. Worth. 2006. “Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy balance in BOREAS.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. In Press.

      Boyd, P.W., C. Law, Y. Nojiri, C.S. Wong, A. Tsuda, M. Levasseur, S. Takeda, G. Jackson, J. Needoba, R. Strzepek, J. Gower, R.M. McKay, M.D. Arychuk, J. Barwell-Clarke, W.R. Crawford, D.W. Crawford, M. Hale, P.J. Harrison, K. Johnson, H. Kiyosawa, I. Kudo, A. Marchetti, W. Miller, J. Nishioka, T. Pedersen, R. Rivkin, M. Robert, H. Saito, N. Sherry, T. Soutar, N.E. Sutherland, C. Trick, F.A. Whitney and J.-E. Tremblay. 2004. “Evolution, decline and fate of an iron-induced subarctic.” Nature. 2437:1-4.

      Brasseur, G. and K.L. Denman. 2005. “Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry.” In IPCC WG1 Fourth Assessment Report, edited by K. Boonpragob, M. Heimann, and M. Molina.

      Bryant, Christopher R., Barry Smit, Michael Brklacich, Thomas R. Johnston, John Smithers, Quentin Chjotti and Bhawan Singh. 2000. “Adaptation in Canadian Agriculture to Climatic Variability and Change.” Climatic Change. 45(1):181-201.

      Cohen, Stewart J. 2005. “A Participatory Approach for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Case Study on Okanagan Water Resources.” Adapting to Climate Change in Canada 2005: Understanding risks and Building Capacity, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Retrieved July 21, 2006 (http://adaptation2005.ca/abstracts/cohen_e.html)

      Denman, K.L. and A.E. Gargett. 1995. “Biological/physical interactions in the upper ocean: the role of vertical and small scale transport processes.” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 27:225-255.

      Denman, Kenneth and Hidekatsu Yamazaki. 1995. “Upper ocean processes and the global carbon cycle.” J. Oceanogr. 4:1-8. (in Japanese).

      Freeland, H.J. and P.F. Cummins. 2005. “Argo: A new tool for environmental monitoring and assessment of the world's oceans, an example from the NE Pacific.” Progress in Oceanography. 64:31-44.

      Foreman, M.G.G., W.R. Crawford and R.F. Marsden. 1995. “De-Tiding: Theory and Practice.” Pp. 203-239, In Quantitative Skill Assessment for Coastal Ocean Models, Coastal and Estuarine Studies. Edited by D.R. Lynch and A.M. Davies.

      Gameda, S., B. Qian, C.A. Campbell, and R.L. Desjardins. 2006. “Trends in summer fallow and climate variables in the Canadian Prairies.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. Accepted for publication.

      Gower, J.F.R. 1995. “Detection and mapping of bright plankton blooms and river plumes using AVHRR imagery.” In Proceedings of Third Thematic Conference, Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Seattle, Wash., 18-20 Sept. 1:151-162.

      Harrison, P., D. Mackas, B. Frost, R. Macdonald and E. Crecelius. 1994. “An assessment of nutrients, plankton, and some pollutants in the water column of Juan de Fuca Strait, Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound and their transboundary transport.” Pp. 138-172. In: Proc. BC/Washington Symposium on the Marine Environment. Can. Tech. Rep. Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. edited by R. Wilson, R. Beamish, F. Aitkens and J. Bell.

      Harrison, P.J., F.A. Whitney, D.L. Mackas, R.J. Beamish, M. Trudel and I.R. Perry. 2005. “Changes in coastal ecosystems in the NE Pacific Ocean.” Pp. 17-35. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Long-Term Variations in the Coastal Environments and Ecosystems, 27-28 September, 2005. Matsuyama, Japan .

      Holloway, G. 1994. pp. 43-46. In Applications of Statistics to Modeling the Earth's Climate System, NCAR Tech. Report/TN-409. edited by : R.A. Madden and R.W. Katz.

      Grant, B., W. Smith, R.L. Desjardins, R. Lemke and C. Li. 2004. “Estimated N2O and CO2 emissions as influenced by agricultural practices in Canada.” Climatic Change. 65: 315-332.

      Koshida, G., B. Mills and M. Sanderson 1999. “Adaptation lessons learned (and forgotten) from the 1988 and 1998 southern Ontario droughts.” Pp. pp. 23-35 in Report from the Adaptation Learning Experiment, edited by I. Burton, M. Kerry, S. Kalhok and M. Vandierendonck. Environment Canada, Environmental Adaptation Research Group, Downsview, Ontario.

      Koshida, G., M. Alden, S. Cohen, R. Halliday, L. Mortsch,V. Wittrock and A. Maarouf. 2005: “Drought Risk Management in Canada-U.S. Transboundary Watersheds: Now and in the Future.” Pp. 287-317 In Drought and Water Crises: Science, Technology and Management Issues, edited by D. Wilhite CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

      Mackas, D.L. 1995. “Interannual variability of the zooplankton community off southern Vancouver Island.” Pp. 77-89. In Climate change and northern fish populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. edited by R. Beamish.

      Masson, D. and P.F. Cummins. 2004. “Observations and modelling of seasonal variability in the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca.” Journal of Marine Research. 62:491-516.

      Mark R.S. Johannes, Kim D. Hyatt and Josie K. Cleland. Canadian Climate Impact and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN) Fisheries Sector, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05 C-CIARN Fisheries Annual Report No. 3.

      Morrison, J. and M. Foreman. 2005. “Forecasting Fraser River flows and temperatures during upstream salmon migration.” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science. 4:101-111. doi: 10.1139/S04-046.

      Peña, M.A. and W.G. Harrison. 1995. “Determinación de la producción primaria mediante el método de Nitrogeno-15.” pp. 387-396 In Manual de métodos ficológicos, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. Edited by K. Alveal, M.E. Ferrario, E.C. Oliveira and E. Sar.

      Schwing, F.B., H.P. Batchelder, W.R. Crawford, N. Mantua, J. Overland, J.J. Polovina and J.-P.Zhao. 2005. “Decadal-scale climate events.” In PICES Scientific Report 28. Report of the study group on fisheries and ecosystem responses to recent regime shifts. Edited by King, J.

      Sinclair, A.F. and W.R. Crawford. 2005. “Incorporation an environmental stock recruitment relationship in the assessment of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus).” Fisheries Oceanography. 14(2):138-150.

      Smith, W.N., B. Grant, R.L. Desjardins, R. Lemke, and C. Li. 2004. “Estimates of the interannual variations of N2O emissions from agricultural soils.” Canada Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 68: 37-45.

      Thomson, R.E. 1994. “Physical Oceanography of the Strait of Georgia-Puget Sound-Juan de Fuca Strait System.” Pp. 36-100 In Review of the Marine Environment and Biota of Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound and Juan de Fuca Strait, Can. Tech. Rept. Fish. Aquat. Sci. edited by R. Wilson, R. Beamish, F. Aitkens and J. Bell.

      Trudel, M., S. Tucker, J.F.T. Morris, D.A. Higgs and D.W. Welch. 2005. “Indicators of energetic status in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha).” North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 25:374-390.

      Trudel, M., D.W. Welch, J.F.T. Morris, E.V. Farley, Jr. and J.M.Murphy. 2005. “Influence of teh marine feeding area on lipid accumulation in juvenile coho salmon.” North Pacific Andramous Fish Commission Technical Report. 6:94-95.

      Whitney, F.A., W.R. Crawford and P.J. Harrison. 2005. “Physical processes that enhance nutrient transport and primary productivity in the coastal and open ocean of the subarctic NE Pacific.” Deep-Sea Research II. 52:681-706.

      Wittrock, Virginia, Grace Koshida, and Elaine Wheaton. 2005. “Adaptation Strategies for Agriculture in Canada: Preparing for the 21st Century.” Adapting to Climate Change in Canada 2005: Understanding risks and Building Capacity, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Retrieved July 12, 2006. (http://adaptation2005.ca/abstracts/wittrock_e.html)

      Wong, C.S. and R.J. Matear. 1995. “Carbon sequestration by marine biota.” pp. 19-31. in Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere. NATO ASI Series I 33, Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop, July 18-21 1994, edited by M.A. Beran. Edinburgh, U.K., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

      Wong, C.S., F.A. Whitney, K. Iseki, J.S. Page and Jiye Zeng. 1995. “Analysis of trends in primary productivity and chlorophyll-a over two decades at Ocean Station P (50°N, 145°W) in the subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean.” p.107-117. In Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations.Spec. Publ. Can. Fish. Aquat. Sci. edited by : Beamish, R. [Ed.].
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