National Progress Reports in Agrometeorology

The WMO Secretariat prepared and circulated a detailed questionnaire for the preparation of National Reports on Progress Made in Agricultural Meteorology by Members per Recommendation 1 of CAgM-XIV. In accordance with this recommendation, the WMO Secretariat will continue to compile the information in a comprehensive database to make it available to members.

2006-2009

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United States

  1. Part 1 - Organization
    1. 1.1. Number of institutions engaged in Agrometeorology-related work in your country .....200
    2. 1.2. Resources and Facilities (please give number)
      1. 1.2a. Approximate no. of persons in Agricultural Meteorology
        1. NMHS
          1. - Total Number .....850
          2. - Class I-II .....N/A
          3. - Class III-IV .....N/A
          4. - Others .....N/A
          5. - PhD .....N/A
      2. 1.2b. Facilities available to Agricultural Meteorology Division
        1. NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....85
          2. - Personal computers .....850
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) .....375
          4. - Remote Sensing and Image Analysis .....225
    3. 1.3. Training and Education (Training and Education of Agricultural Meteorology personnel since 1999)
      1. NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....475
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....N/A
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....N/A
  2. Part 2 - Agrometeorological Observations
    1. NMHS
      1. Prior to 2006 (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....1600
        2. - New instruments added .....115
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....700
      2. Current (2009) (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....2125
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....2035
  3. Part 3 - Agrometeorological Services for Agriculture
    1. 3.1. Service structure (Indicate where agrometeorological services are located in your country)
      1. - Is the agrometeorological service constituted as a separate unit? .....Yes
      2. - Is the agrometeorological service at headquarters only? .....No
      3. - Are there agrometeorological services in different regions? .....Yes
    2. 3.2. Please list the agrometeorological products and other services for agriculture products provided by your service
      tables, charts, maps – describing weather in agricultural areas on national & smaller scales

      written assessments – summarizing observed weather impacts on agriculture

      forecasts – providing weather & climate outlooks for major agricultural areas

      agrometeorological bulletins – packaging products for farmers & decision makers

      early warning services – warning farmers & decision makers of potential extreme weather

      advisory services – providing farmers recommendations based on weather & climate data

      tools – user-friendly models & calculators to help farmers make informed decisions

      publications – communicating advances in agrometeorological research & development

      extension – helping transfer knowledge & technology among researchers & farmers
    3. 3.3. Types and forms of service provided by the agrometeorology unit
      1. - Bulletins .....Yes
      2. - Brochures .....Yes
      3. - Radio and TV .....Yes
      4. - Press releases .....Yes
      5. - Workshops and seminars .....Yes
      6. - Interactions with farmers and/or farmer groups .....Yes
    4. 3.4. Agrometeorological Information on the Internet
      1. - Does your service have an Internet web page?
        http://www.usda.gov/oce/weather/
      2. - Specify the agrometeorological products posted on your website
        U.S. Agricultural Weather Highlights (daily)

        Weekly Weather & Crop Bulletin (weekly),

        International Weather & Crop Summary (weekly)

        International Weather & Crop Highlights (weekly, monthly)

        Global Crop Production Review (annually)

        Major World Crop Areas and Climatic Profiles
    5. 3.5. Collaboration with other organizations (including important achievements)
      1. 3.5a. Please list the names of the governmental ministries/institutions that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        World Meteorological Organization (CAgM activities)

        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (agricultural weather monitoring)

        National Aeronautics and Space Administration (expanding use of remote sensing)

        Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Meteorological Service of Canada (drought monitoring)

        National Meteorological Service of Mexico (SMN) (drought monitoring)

        State Climate Offices (agricultural weather monitoring)
      2. 3.5b. Please list the names of the non-governmental organization (NGOs) that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Western Governors Association (drought policy)

        National Drought Mitigation Center (drought monitoring)

        Universities (extension)
    6. 3.6. Media interaction: routinely/in person
      1. - Television .....Yes
      2. - Radio .....Yes
      3. - Electronic .....Yes
      4. - Newspaper/magazine .....Yes
    7. 3.7. Awareness and training events conducted with
      1. - Cooperatively with other Ministry or Sector .....Yes
      2. - Cooperatively with other University .....Yes
      3. - Cooperatively with NGO .....Yes
      4. - At regular intervals? .....Yes
      5. - Do meteorologists/climatologists attend with sector reps.? .....Yes
  4. Part 4 - Agrometeorological Research
    1. Please indicate the agrometeorological research conducted in your service
      1. 4.1. Influence of meteorological factors on the growth, development, yield and quality of agricultural crops .....Yes
      2. 4.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and assessment of present condition .....Yes
      3. 4.3. Linkage between agrometeorological models and atmospheric forecast and general circulation models .....Yes
      4. 4.4. Development of applications using seasonal to interannual predictions in agriculture .....Yes
      5. 4.5. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research .....No
      6. 4.6. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock husbandry .....No
      7. 4.7. Influence of meteorological and climatological factors on inland coastal and marine fisheries .....No
      8. 4.8. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather .....Yes
      9. 4.9. Agrometeorological conditions for the development of crop and livestock pests and diseases .....Yes
      10. 4.10. Research on the impact of agricultural activities that possibly influence weather and climate at local, national, and global levels .....Yes
      11. 4.11. Research on remote-sensing application in agrometeorology .....Yes
      12. 4.12. Research into agrometeorological aspects of drought and desertification .....Yes
      13. 4.13. Research on potential impacts of climate change/variability on national agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      14. 4.14. Research on mitigation and adaptation strategies due to impacts of climate change/variability and natural disasters in agriculture .....Yes
      15. 4.15. Research on the impact of natural disasters on agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      16. 4.16. Research on fire weather agrometeorology .....Yes
  5. Part 5 - Socio-Economic Benefits
    1. - Please list any case studies demonstrating the socio-economic benefits of your agrometeorological service.
      USDA management use U.S. Drought Monitor to designate areas that receive disaster relief

      USDA management use early warnings of potential extreme weather to prepare response strategies in agricultural areas
  6. Part 6 - Models
    1. - Information on practical crop-yield models, irrigation, disease/pest model, etc. (even if they are in the initial stages of development). Please list the ten most-used models in your service.
      Soil moisture model (simple one-dimensional model)

      Potential evapotranspiration model (from FAO)

      Growing degree day models (e.g., corn, cotton, soybeans, wheat, canola, rapeseed)

      Analog year crop yield models

      Regression-based crop yield models

      Winterkill models (e.g., wheat, rapeseed)

      Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (under development)
  7. Part 7 - Drought Indicies
    1. - Please list the five most-used drought indices in your service.
      Standardized Precipitation Index

      Hydrological measures (e.g., stream flow, reservoir levels)

      Soil moisture models (e.g., CPC, NLDAS)

      Percent of normal precipitation/percentiles data

      Palmer-related suite of products (i.e., PHDI, PDSI, Palmer Z Index, CMI)
  8. Part 8 - Societies
    1. - Please list any agricultural meteorology societies active in your country.
      N/A
  9. Part 9 - Bibliography
    1. - Please provide a short bibliography of relevant papers/reports published by your service.
      Motha, R. and R. Stefanski. 2006. United States Department of Agriculture’s weather and climate
      information system for operational applications in agriculture. Meteorological Applications, 13,31-47.

      U.S. Department of Agriculture, World Agricultural Outlook Board. 1994. Major World Crop Areas and Climatic Profiles. Agricultural Handbook No. 664.
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