National Progress Reports in Agrometeorology

The WMO Secretariat prepared and circulated a detailed questionnaire for the preparation of National Reports on Progress Made in Agricultural Meteorology by Members per Recommendation 1 of CAgM-XIV. In accordance with this recommendation, the WMO Secretariat will continue to compile the information in a comprehensive database to make it available to members.




  1. Part 1 - Organization
    1. 1.1. Number of institutions engaged in Agrometeorology-related work in your country .....0
    2. 1.2. Resources and Facilities (please give number)
      1. 1.2a. Approximate no. of persons in Agricultural Meteorology
        1. NMHS
          1. - Total Number .....11
          2. - Class I-II .....9
          3. - Class III-IV .....2
          4. - Others .....N/A
          5. - PhD .....N/A
      2. 1.2b. Facilities available to Agricultural Meteorology Division
        1. NMHS
          1. - Mainframe computers .....1
          2. - Personal computers .....12
          3. - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) .....1
          4. - Remote Sensing and Image Analysis .....1
    3. 1.3. Training and Education (Training and Education of Agricultural Meteorology personnel since 1999)
      1. NMHS
        1. - No of persons who received advanced degrees (M.Sc, Ph.D) .....N/A
        2. - No of persons who attended long term training courses .....N/A
        3. - No of persons who attended short term seminars, workshops (1-2 weeks) .....5
  2. Part 2 - Agrometeorological Observations
    1. NMHS
      1. Prior to 2006 (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....70
        2. - New instruments added .....N/A
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....0
      2. Current (2009) (num)
        1. - Number of stations in the network of agrometeorological observations .....65
        2. - New instruments added .....4
        3. - Automatic weather stations in use .....28
  3. Part 3 - Agrometeorological Services for Agriculture
    1. 3.1. Service structure (Indicate where agrometeorological services are located in your country)
      1. - Is the agrometeorological service constituted as a separate unit? .....No
      2. - Is the agrometeorological service at headquarters only? .....Yes
      3. - Are there agrometeorological services in different regions? .....No
    2. 3.2. Please list the agrometeorological products and other services for agriculture products provided by your service
      agrometeorological data and values of computed agrometeorological parameters as a necessary input for various activities (e.g. plant protection, exploitation of the irrigation systems, definition of technological maturity of some crops etc.);

      seven-day, ten-day, monthly agricultural bulletins, seasonal and annual agrometeorological analyses (analyses of the influence of meteorological factors on the development, growth and yield of crops), as well as special CROPSYST bulletin.

      agrometeorological forecasts, advice and warnings in unfavourable weather conditions;

      annual reviews of agrometeorological observations (yearbooks: Soil Temperature, Phenological, Class A Evaporation, Evapotranspiration – lysimeter measurements);

      periodical publications of the results of agrometeorological research (foremost processing and suitable examination of long series of agrometeorological data).
    3. 3.3. Types and forms of service provided by the agrometeorology unit
      1. - Bulletins .....Yes
      2. - Brochures .....No
      3. - Radio and TV .....Yes
      4. - Press releases .....Yes
      5. - Workshops and seminars .....No
      6. - Interactions with farmers and/or farmer groups .....Yes
    4. 3.4. Agrometeorological Information on the Internet
      1. - Does your service have an Internet web page?
      2. - Specify the agrometeorological products posted on your website
        On the website of RHMSS, Department for Agricultural meteorology regularly updates agrometeorological bulletins and analyses: seven-day, ten-day, monthly and annual. Bulletins are based on actual agrometeorological data obtained from meteorological network on the territory of Serbia, existing agroclimatic documentation, short and medium - range weather forecast, as well as on other information (agricultural, biological) obtained from agricultural organizations and field - specialists. The base period 1971-2000 is used for the climate anomalies assessment The most important agrometeorological parameters, such as potential evapotranspiration, various moisture indices, effective temperature sums, are calculated and presented. Besides the appropriate presentations of the relevant numeric values, bulletins comprise brief summaries of the influence of meteorological factors on the development, growth and yield of crop and seasonal field works carried out in the preceding period, assessment of the crop state, as well as agrometeorological forecasts, advices and warnings in unfavourable weather conditions. Beginning with year 2009 operative forecast of daily potential evapotranspiration by Hargeaves (1985) method was introduced. Forecast of potential evapotranspiration is based on extreme daily temperature deterministic ten-day forecast (ECMWF and RHMSS). Actual ET0 values for the previous five days and ten day forecasts as per stations are updated every day. Also, extra page named “moisture conditions” was introduced containing products of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculations within the various time scales. Besides mentioned, the ten days bulletin based on using of the CROPSYST model became operational. After all, RHMSS began the application of Canadian Fire Weather Index – FWI. Operative calculation of Index values for tree days ahead are based on weather forecast mezzo-scale model of the latest generation (WRF-NMM).
    5. 3.5. Collaboration with other organizations (including important achievements)
      1. 3.5a. Please list the names of the governmental ministries/institutions that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
        Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of Republic of Serbia
        Nemanjina 22-26, 11000 Beograd, Serbia

        Chamber of Commerce of Vojvodina Province
        Bulevar Mihajla Pupina 24, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

        Association of Cooperatives of Republic of Serbia
        Resavska 15, 11000 Beograd, Serbia

        Institute of Plant Protection and Environment
        Teodora Drajzera 9, 11000 Beograd, Serbia

        Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
        Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

        Faculty for Forestry - University in Beograd
        Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Beograd, Serbia

        Institute for Corn Zemun Polje 
        Stanislava Bajića 1, 11085 Zemun Polje, Serbia

        University in Novi Sad, Centre for Meteorology and Environmental
        Modelling, Dositej Obradović Sq., 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

        Faculty for Agriculture – University in Novi Sad
        Dositej Obradović Sq. , 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

        Faculty for Agriculture – University in Beograd,
        Nemanjina 6, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
      2. 3.5b. Please list the names of the non-governmental organization (NGOs) that your service collaborated with during 2002-2005
    6. 3.6. Media interaction: routinely/in person
      1. - Television .....Yes
      2. - Radio .....Yes
      3. - Electronic .....Yes
      4. - Newspaper/magazine .....Yes
    7. 3.7. Awareness and training events conducted with
      1. - Cooperatively with other Ministry or Sector .....Yes
      2. - Cooperatively with other University .....Yes
      3. - Cooperatively with NGO .....No
      4. - At regular intervals? .....No
      5. - Do meteorologists/climatologists attend with sector reps.? .....Yes
  4. Part 4 - Agrometeorological Research
    1. Please indicate the agrometeorological research conducted in your service
      1. 4.1. Influence of meteorological factors on the growth, development, yield and quality of agricultural crops .....Yes
      2. 4.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and assessment of present condition .....Yes
      3. 4.3. Linkage between agrometeorological models and atmospheric forecast and general circulation models .....No
      4. 4.4. Development of applications using seasonal to interannual predictions in agriculture .....No
      5. 4.5. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research .....Yes
      6. 4.6. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock husbandry .....No
      7. 4.7. Influence of meteorological and climatological factors on inland coastal and marine fisheries .....No
      8. 4.8. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather .....Yes
      9. 4.9. Agrometeorological conditions for the development of crop and livestock pests and diseases .....Yes
      10. 4.10. Research on the impact of agricultural activities that possibly influence weather and climate at local, national, and global levels .....No
      11. 4.11. Research on remote-sensing application in agrometeorology .....No
      12. 4.12. Research into agrometeorological aspects of drought and desertification .....Yes
      13. 4.13. Research on potential impacts of climate change/variability on national agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      14. 4.14. Research on mitigation and adaptation strategies due to impacts of climate change/variability and natural disasters in agriculture .....Yes
      15. 4.15. Research on the impact of natural disasters on agriculture, rangelands, forestry, and fisheries .....Yes
      16. 4.16. Research on fire weather agrometeorology .....Yes
  5. Part 5 - Socio-Economic Benefits
    1. - Please list any case studies demonstrating the socio-economic benefits of your agrometeorological service.
      Agrometeorological/meteorological/climatological information usage in various aspects of agricultural production and related scientific research continued to increase during the previous period. Mean-while, there were no extensive studies about socio-economic benefits of agrometeorological service.
  6. Part 6 - Models
    1. - Information on practical crop-yield models, irrigation, disease/pest model, etc. (even if they are in the initial stages of development). Please list the ten most-used models in your service.
      CROPSYST – Cropping Systems Simulation Model, Washington State University

      Phenology and Degree-day Models (Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University)

      Simple water balance model (grass plant cover) based on empiric Makkink potential evapotranspiration formula;

      Penman-Montheith method is mostly used for potential evapotranspiration calculation.
  7. Part 7 - Drought Indicies
    1. - Please list the five most-used drought indices in your service.
      Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on the basis of precipitation for previous 30,60, 90 days with one day calculation step, and SPI for 1,2,3,4,5,6,9,12 and 24 months - monthly calculation. In the Appendix II there are examples of moisture conditions assessment - drought monitoring on the basis of SPI.

      Palmer’s Z index, which is the measure of monthly moisture anomaly. Z index values are updated at the end of each decade in operative application.

      Palmer Drought Index;

      Thorntwaite Drought Index;

      Calculated soil moisture storage within one meter soil layer below grass plant cover;
  8. Part 8 - Societies
    1. - Please list any agricultural meteorology societies active in your country.
      Agricultural meteorological societies do not exist in Serbia. However, part of activities of Serbian Meteorological Society relate to domain of agricultural meteorology.
  9. Part 9 - Bibliography
    1. - Please provide a short bibliography of relevant papers/reports published by your service.
      Alapaty, K.T., and D.T. Mihailović, 2006: “An intercomparison study of two land surface models using a 1-D model and FIFE measurements”. Int. J. Climat., 26, 915-934.

      Lalić, B., D.T. Mihailović, S. Radovanović, J.Balaž and A.Ćirišan, 2007: „Input data representativeness problem in plant disease forecasting models“. Idojaras, Vol. 111, No. 2-3, 199-208.

      Mihailović, D. T., B. Lalić and I. Arsenić, 2006: "The use of Numerical Environmental Prediction Models in planning field and vegetable crops production under conditions induced by climate changes", A Periodical of Scientific Research on Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, 2006.

      Mihailović, D. T., B. Lalić, J. Eitzinger, S. Malinović and I. Arsenić, 2006: "An approach for calculation of turbulent transfer coefficient for momentum inside vegetation canopies", J. App. Met. and Climat., Vol. 51, 348–356.

      Kostadinov S., P. Spasov, 2006: Indicators of desertification in Serbia, BALWOIS, Conference on Water Observation and Information System for Decision Support, Ohrid, Macedonia, May 23-26

      Radičević Z., T. Radenković, J. Bojović, 2008: “The impact of climatological factors on the composition of weed flora in Serbia”. Acta Herbologica, Vol. 17 No 1, 31-36

      Dodig D., P. Spasov, B. Miletić 2006: The occurrence of drought and its effect on plant production in eastern Serbia”, Acta Agriculturae Serbica, Vol. XI, 21, 45-51.

      Radičević Z., S. Milakara, T. Radenković, J. Bojović, 2009: “The analysis of the growing season and the frost-free period on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, period 1949-2007”, The 14th Conference about Biotechnology, 227-231, Čačak, 27-28 March.

      Spasov P., Z. Krajinović, 2006: “Agrometeorological aspects of organic food production”, Magazine “Farmer”. Beograd.

      Jeftić R., 2009: “Climate change and its impact on small grains diseases in Northern Serbia (Vojvodina province) ADAGIO Project, Second national meeting, Novi Sad, February 20th .

      Lalić B., 2009: “Climate change and its impact on agricultural production in Northern Serbia (Vojvodina) region, ADAGIO Project, Second national meeting, Novi Sad, February 20th .

      Dumanović Z. 2009: “Effect of climate change on maize“, ADAGIO Project, Second National Meeting, Novi Sad, February 20th .
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